Somewhere, among the last minute changes and cables going back and forth, there was a miscommunication. A week later, on Saturday, December 29, surviving brigade members gathered for a ceremony in Miami's Orange Bowl, where the brigade's flag was handed over to President Kennedy.
The success of the plan depended on the Cuban population joining the invaders. In retaliation, the Cuban National Institute for Agrarian Reform took control of private-run businesses on 14 October, and on 25 October a further US companies operating in Cuba had their premises seized and nationalized, including Coca-Cola and Sears Roebuck.
Soon after the success of the Cuban Revolution, militant counter-revolutionary groups developed in an attempt to overthrow the new regime. On April 17, the Cuban-exile invasion force, known as Brigadelanded at beaches along the Bay of Pigs and immediately came under heavy fire.
Castro had found himself on a collision course with the United States almost from the moment he seized power. Kennedy of the Democratic Partycampaigned on the issue of Cuba, with both candidates taking a hardline stance on Castro. Kennedy thought changing the invasion site from Trinidad would make future deniability of US involvement more plausible, so he gave the CIA four days to come up with a new one.
Did he have good reason for thinking that the operation would prove successful? The Brigade did have some successes.