Georgy Chicherin, the Soviet Russian commissar for foreign relations, signed the document on behalf of the Russian republic, formed in July Trotsky emerged weakened from the 12th Party Congress in Aprilwhile Stalin secured new supporters in the Central Committee and new candidate members of the Politburo, the latter including Vyacheslav Molotov.
In the Soviet historian Roy Medvedev estimated that about 20 million died as a result of the labour camps, forced collectivizationfamine, and executions. Lenin used this concept to fuel the Russian revolution, claiming that in his Socialist society this dictatorship would consist of a series of Soviets councils consisting of factory workers and other proletarians all participating in a direct democracy.
Benito Mussolini positively reviewed Stalinism as having transformed Soviet Bolshevism into a Slavic fascism. Marxism is a socialist ideology that is derived from the workings of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engles.
Stalin was also a member of the Bolshevik party.